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Scientific papers (2013-2017)   authored or co-authored by  clinicians at the Eye & Ear Hospital.


Reference  Style Guides

Below is a list of useful external links that may assist you in using reference style guides.

1.0 Referencing styles

APA Referencing Style Guide

Harvard Referencing Style Guide

MLA Referencing Style Guide

 2.0 A Guide for Writing Research Papers based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation

This website is prepared by Capital Community College Hartford, Connecticut.
It is presented in a PDF document.
Web link:

3.0 A Guide for Writing Research Papers based on the American Psychological Association (APA) Documentation

This website is prepared by Capital Community College Hartford, Connecticut.
It is presented in a PDF document.
Web link:

4.0 Style Guides - University of Southern Mississippi Libraries

University of Southern Mississippi Libraries guide on using referencing styles, covers the following common styles of Turabian, Chicago and APA (American Psychological Association).
Web link:

5.0 List of Serials Indexed for Online Users- National Library of Medicine

The List of Serials Indexed for Online Users (LSIOU) contains a list of all journals ever indexed over time for MEDLINE. The last update to this list was January 2008.
Please read the Terms and Conditions first before accessing the resource.
Web link:
6.0 National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Internet Citation (Supplement Internet Formats)

Published by the U. S Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, National Institutes of Health.
It is presented in a PDF document (quite long).
Web link:

7.0 Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication

Created by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE).

Planning your search

Here are the basic steps of conducting a search. Please follow this easy flowchart as a guide when conducting a search in the medical literature.

To learn more about conducting a search, please book a one-on-one Information Skills Training session or join a group session. Book an one-on-one session. Learn more about what skills you can acquire in an Information Skills Training session.

Step 1: Construct a searchable question or sentence(s) that you require the answer to. These are fundamental to the quality of information retrieved and it is important that they clearly address your project/research focus.


rank concepts

Step 2: Identify keywords or search terms to use. Include synonyms, alternate spelling, and abbreviations.

                            rank concepts                         

Step 3: Break topic down into concepts

                                                          rank concepts                                                       

Step 4: Rank concepts in order of importance

                           rank concepts                          

Step 5: From these concepts determine which can be used in your search

                           rank concepts                          

Step 6: Link keywords together using the Boolean operators AND, OR, NOT

                                  rank concepts                               

Step 7: Choose the appropriate resource or database to search from the Clinicians Health Channel
on the Library website.

E.g. Medline, PubMed, OVID Nursing Solution or CINAHL (Cumulative index for Nursing &
Allied Health Literature), Cochrane, etc. 

Search the Clinicians Health Channel Resources plus other e-journals & resources subscribed
to by the Library, through the Electronic Resources Portal on the library website.

                               rank concepts                            

NOTE: Databases generally search for terms in the title and abstract of the articles and so the results are dependant on the words used by the author of the journal article or publication.

You can view the list of publications authored or co-authored by the clinicians at the Eye & Ear and partner organisations onsite here.